Mangystau region - an area in the south-west of Kazakhstan, previously called Mangyshlak.
Formed March 20, 1973 from the southern part of the Guryev region. In 1988, the region was abolished, restored in 1990 under the name of Mangystau. The region borders in the northeast with Atyrau and Aktobe regions, in the west - by sea with the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan and Iran, in the south - with Turkmenistan and in the east - with Uzbekistan. The length of the internal borders of the region is 319 km, the external borders - 1173 km, including the sea - 810 km.
The center of the region - Aktau was founded in 1963, is located on the shores of the Caspian Sea and is the “sea gate” of Kazakhstan.
The Mangystau region is an industrial region where 25% of Kazakhstan’s oil is produced. The Aktau-Zhetybai-Uzen pipeline passes here. In the Mangystau region there are “sea gates” of Kazakhstan - the city of Aktau.
Territory and population
The relief of the region is diverse. The northern half is occupied by the Caspian lowland, the central part is the Mangystau peninsula and the deepest depression in the CIS is the Karagiye depression. In the southwest is the Kendirli-Kayasanskoe Plateau, in the south - the Karynzharyk depression. The east of the region is occupied by the Ustyurt plateau. The climate is sharply continental. The average January temperature is 3 C, July +26 C. The average annual rainfall is up to 150 mm. Most of the territory is occupied by wormwood and solyanka desert with areas of shrub vegetation on brown soils: the surface is partially covered with salt marshes, takyr-like salt licks and sands with extremely rare vegetation.
The territory of the Mangystau region is 165.6 thousand square meters. km (6.1% of the total area of Kazakhstan). The population of December 1, 2009 - 443.1 thousand people (2.8% of the population of the republic), including the urban population - 234.7 thousand people (53%), the rural population - 208.3 thousand people (47%). The population density is 2.7 people per 1 square. km
In the region there are 2 cities (Aktau, Zhanaozen), 5 rural areas (including the small town of Fort-Shevchenko), 3 villages, 39 rural districts and 54 villages.
Economy of the region
The region’s economy is based on the oil and gas industry, which accounts for more than 90% of the total industrial output in the region. The richest reserves of oil and gas turned Mangistau into a zone of serious financial interests of large domestic and foreign companies.
The region is one of the suppliers of hydrocarbons for export. The main oil exporters are Osenmunaygas Production Company KazMunaiGaz Exploration Production JSC, Mangistaumunaygas JSC, Karazhanbasmunai JSC, JV Arman, Karakudukmunai CJSC. Oil goes mainly to Switzerland, the Virgin Islands, Italy, the UK, Gibraltar, the Bahamas.